It is modelled on the originally British term, champagne socialist , which has a similar meaning. The term chardonnay socialist appeared in the s, not long after the grape variety Chardonnay became very popular with Australian wine drinkers. Williamson Emerald City : I'm going to keep charting their perturbations.. A checkout operator at a supermarket. This term usually refers to female checkout operators hence chick , an informal word for a young woman , but with changes in the gender makeup of the supermarket workforce the term is occasionlly applied to males. Checkout chick is first recorded in the s.
For a more detailed discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from May A domestic fowl; a chicken. Chook is the common term for the live bird, although chook raffles , held in Australian clubs and pubs, have ready-to-cook chooks as prizes. The term has also been transferred to refer to other birds, and often in the form old chook it can refer to a woman. See our Word of the Month articles 'chook run' and 'chook lit' for further uses of chook. Was he looking after the housemaid or the little chookies? A jocular curse.
This expression recalls an earlier time when many Australians kept chooks domestic chickens in the backyard and the dunny was a separate outhouse. Although I must say this is a very cunning, contrived piece of legislation, if that is what they set out to do. May their chooks turn into emus and kick their dunnies down. To vomit. Chunder possibly comes from a once-popular cartoon character, 'Chunder Loo of Akim Foo', drawn by Norman Lindsay for a series of boot polish advertisements in the early s.
It is possible that 'Chunder Loo' became rhyming slang for spew. Chunder , however, is the only form to be recorded. The earliest evidence is associated with Australian troops in action to the north of Australia during the Second World War. Makes you chunda. Something that is largely illusory or exists in name only; a poor substitute or imitation. For a more detailed discussion of the word see our blog 'The evolution of a word - the case of Clayton's'.
Pung Growing up Asian in Australia : My bikini top is crammed so full of rubbery 'chicken fillets' I'd probably bounce if you threw me. These Clayton's breasts jiggle realistically when I jump up and down on the spot. An unbranded animal.
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In the pastoral industry an animal that has not been branded with a mark identifying the owner can easily be stolen or lost. The word is first recorded in the s. There are several transferred and figurative senses of cleanskin that evolved from the orgininal sense. In the first decade of the 20th century cleanskin began to be used to describe 'an Aboriginal person who has not passed through an initiation rite'.
From the s cleanskin was also used of 'a bottle of wine without a label that identifies the maker, sold at a price cheaper than comparable labelled bottles; the wine in such a bottle'. Keenan The Horses too are Gone : In the rangelands an unbranded calf becomes a cleanskin and cleanskins belong to the first person capable of planting a brand on the rump. A friend, a companion.
It is likely that these terms, as well as cobber , found their way into London slang especially from the Jewish population living in the East End , and from there, via British migrants, into Australian English. Cobber , now somewhat dated, is rarely used by young Australians. A small-scale farmer; in later use often applied to a substantial landowner or to the rural interest generally. Cocky arose in the s and is an abbreviation of cockatoo farmer. This was then a disparaging term for small-scale farmers, probably because of their habit of using a small area of land for a short time and then moving on, in the perceived manner of cockatoos feeding.
A person sentenced in the British Isles to a term of penal servitude in an Australian Colony. The foundations of European settlement in Australia are based on the transportation of tens of thousands of prisoners from the British Isles. While in America convict is still used to refer to a prisoner, in Australia it is now largely historical. For a further discussion of this word see our blog 'A long lost convict: Australia's "C-word"?
Angas Description of the Barossa Range : No convicts are transported to this place, for South Australia is not a penal colony. Originally a call used by an Aboriginal person to communicate with someone at a distance; later adopted by settlers and now widely used as a signal, especially in the bush; a name given to the call.
The iconic call of the Australian bush comes from the Aboriginal Sydney language word gawi or guwi meaning 'come here'. Cooee is recorded from the early years of European settlement in Sydney. It is often found in the phrase within cooee meaning 'within earshot; within reach, near'. Cunningham Two Years in New South Wales : In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use of the word Coo-ee , as we do the word Hollo , prolonging the sound of the coo , and closing that of the ee with a shrill jerk. Lambert Watermen : If I ever see you within coo-ee of my boat again, I'll drown you.
The word is a borrowing from Yuwaaliyaay and neighbouring languages , an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales. In the earlier period it was was spelt in various ways, including coolabah , coolobar , and coolybah. It is term for any of several eucalypts, especially the blue-leaved Eucalyptus microtheca found across central and northern Australia, a fibrous-barked tree yielding a durable timber and occurring in seasonally flooded areas. Coolibah is first recorded in the s.
Bad, unpleasant or unsatisfactory: Things were crook on the land in the seventies. Crook means bad in a general sense, and also in more specific senses too: unwell or injured a crook knee , and dishonest or illegal he was accused of crook dealings. All senses are recorded from the s. Pratt Wolaroi's Cup : Most stables.. Clune Roaming Round the Darling : My cobber, here, used to sing in opera. He's a pretty crook singer, but he'll sing for you. Used to indicate the need for a rest in order to settle down, solve a problem, etc.
The phrase now often with some variations was originally the title of a a revue at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydney Not anymore. A native-born Australian. These terms are now obsolete. These were called currency. An unfashionable person; a person lacking style or character; a socially awkward adolescent, a 'nerd'. These senses of dag derive from an earlier Australian sense of dag meaning 'a "character", someone eccentric but entertainingly so'. Ultimately all these senses of dag are probably derived from the British dialect especially in children's speech sense of dag meaning a 'feat of skill', 'a daring feat among boys', and the phrase to have a dag at meaning 'to have a shot at'.
Dag referring to an unfashionable person etc. Never ever wear a striped suit, a striped shirt and a striped tie together - just dreadful You look like a real dag. Hurry up, get a move on. When a daggy sheep runs, the dried dags knock together to make a rattling sound. The word dag originally daglock was a British dialect word that was borrowed into mainstream Australian English in the s. Thorne Battler : C'mon Mum, rattle yer dags - the old girls are hungry! To pull down or remove the trousers from a person as a joke or punishment. Dak derives from another Australian term daks meaning 'a pair of trousers'.
The term is first recorded from the early s but is probably much older than that. For a more detailed discussion of dak see our Word of the Month article from July His family didn't know about it until he was dacked during a game this year. A simple kind of bread, traditionally unleavened and baked in the ashes of an outdoor fire. Because it was the most common form of bread for bush workers in the nineteenth century, to earn your damper means to be worth your pay.
Bisley Stillways : We made damper out of flour and water, squeezed it around green sticks to cook over the coals. A commemorative ceremony held at dawn on Anzac Day. Anzac Day, April 25, is a national public holiday in Australia commemorating all those who have served and died in war. While commemorative services have been held on April 25 since , the term dawn service is not recorded until the s. The didgeridoo is a wind instrument that was originally found only in Arnhem Land in northern Australia.
It is a long, wooden, tubular instrument that produces a low-pitched, resonant sound with complex, rhythmic patterns but little tonal variation. In popular understanding many Australians probably believe that this is an Aboriginal word. Subsequent research has cast doubt on this etymology, and in the following statement was made in Australian Aboriginal Words in English : 'Although it has been suggested that this must be a borrowing from an Australian language it is not one. The name probably evolved from white people's ad hoc imitation of the sound of the instrument'.
This argument is supported by two of the earliest pieces of evidence for the term:. It produces but one sound - 'didjerry, didjerry, didjerry -' and so on ad infinitum. First recorded in this sense It came to France when the sandgropers gave up digging on the goldfields of W. They include a major who planned an 'unprecedented operation' to capture a rogue Afghan sergeant who murdered three Australian diggers. Reliable; genuine; honest; true.
This word is a shortening of fair dinkum which comes from British dialect. The adjective is first recorded in Australia from the s. For a more detailed discussion of dinkum see the article 'The Story of Dinkum' on our blog. The starting point is to make the debate more dinkum. The phrase was first recorded in This may give a clue to the source of the phrase. If you are done like a dinner , you are completely and efficiently demolished. Bride Letters from Victorian Pioneers : The horse swam for a quarter of a mile down the river with the cart after him.. To inform upon someone ; to incriminate someone.
The word is probably related to British dialect dob meaning 'to put down an article heavily or clumsily; to throw down', and 'to throw stones etc. Dob is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see the article 'The Story of Dob' on our blog. Bisley Stillways : He used to sell single cigarettes to kids, and although it was common knowledge, he had never been busted and no one ever dobbed on him. This example illustrates the way the origins of words and phrases can be lost with changes in technology.
The expression has several variants including fed up to dolly's wax , and its meaning does not always denote being 'full' with food. First recorded in the early 20th century. And I am fed up to dolly's wax with them. In a preferential system of voting a vote recorded by allocating preferences according to the order in which candidates' names appear on the ballot paper; such votes viewed collectively.
First recorded in the early midth century. In South Australia this vote - the 'donkey vote' - will go to the Anti-Communists. A parliamentary question asked of a Minister by a member of the party in government to give the Minister the opportunity to deliver a prepared reply. It comes from Dorothy Dix , the pen-name of Elizabeth Gilmer , an American journalist who wrote a famous personal advice column which was syndicated in Australia.
Her column came to seem a little too contrived, as if she was writing the questions as well as the answers. For a discussion about the use of Dorothy Dixer in rhyming slang see the article 'Dorothies and Michelles' in our Ozwords newsletter. One of those came from Mr Hutchin, and there were cries of 'Dorothy Dix' when he asked it When a Minister is anxious to make some information available, or to answer some outside criticism, he will often get a private member to ask a question on the subject.
And it was not her husky voice or hair or makeup that stopped traffic, but the rows and rows of pearls.. In traditional Aboriginal belief a collection of events beyond living memory that shaped the physical, spiritual, and moral world; the era in which these occurred; an Aboriginal person's consciousness of the enduring nature of the era. The term also takes the form dreaming. Dreamtime is a translation of alcheringa - a word from the Arrernte Aboriginal language of the Alice Springs region in central Australia.
Attenborough Quest Under Capricorn : Although the Dreamtime was in the past, it is also co-existent with the present, and a man, by performing the rituals, can become one with his 'dreaming' and experience eternity. It is to seek this mystical union that the men enact the ceremonies. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot. There is also a bird called a drongo. The spangled drongo is found in northern and eastern Australia, as well as in the islands to the north of Australia, and further north to India and China.
It is called a drongo because that is the name of a bird from the same family in northern Madagascar. The spangled drongo is not a stupid bird. It is not a galah. One book describes it thus: 'The spangled drongo catches insects in the air, chasing them in aerobatic flight'.
There is one odd story about the drongo, however: unlike most migratory birds, it appears to migrate to colder regions in winter. Some have suggested that this is the origin of the association of 'stupidity' with the term drongo. But this seems most unlikely. So what is the true story? There was an Australian racehorse called Drongo during the early s.
It seems likely that he was named after the bird called the 'drongo'. He often came very close to winning major races, but in 37 starts he never won a race. In a writer in the Melbourne Argus comments: 'Drongo is sure to be a very hard horse to beat. He is improving with every run'. But he never did win. Soon after the horse's retirement it seems that racegoers started to apply the term to horses that were having similarly unlucky careers. In the s it was applied to recruits in the Royal Australian Air Force. It has become part of general Australian slang.
Buzz Kennedy, writing in The Australian newspaper in , defines a drongo thus:. A drongo is a simpleton but a complicated one: he is a simpleton [of the] sort who not only falls over his feet but does so at Government House; who asks his future mother-in-law to pass-the-magic-word salt the first time the girl asks him home In an emergency he runs heroically in the wrong direction.
If he were Superman he would get locked in the telephone box. He never wins. So he is a drongo. The origin of the term was revived at Flemington in when a Drongo Handicap was held. Only apprentice jockeys were allowed to ride. The horses entered were not allowed to have won a race in the previous twelve months. Goode Through the Farm Gate : I can't believe my drongo of a father is asking such ridiculous questions. A jocular name for an imaginary animal similar in appearance to a koala, with very sharp jaws and teeth, that is said to devour tourists etc.
The term is often associated with the fooling of gullible international tourists, and has accordingly been used this way in television advertisements. There are suggestions that the term drop bear emerged in the Second World War period see quotation below but the first record is from the s.
Keesing Lily on a Dustbin : The 'drop bears' are creatures of a tall story - they were invented during World War II for the benefit of gullible American servicemen. It is alleged that 'drop bears' are a dangerous kind of koala and that they drop out of trees on the heads and shoulders of bush walkers and hug them to death.
Colbert The Ranch : The other Harry has got a head like a drover's dog and always wears a hat. Courtenay: We'd heard Nancy say he'd come back like a drover's dog all prick and ribs. Look out - female approaching! A warning cry from a male as a signal to other men that a woman is approaching a traditionally all-male environment. It is a reminder that the men should modify their language and behaviour to avoid giving offence. It was first used in shearing sheds, but is now heard in other places, especially in a pub. While the first written evidence comes from the early s the phrase probably goes back several decades earlier.
Fatty Vautin and Peter Sterling reportedly held angry meetings with their producer declaring they would not speak to Wilson if she was hired. A toilet. The dunny was originally any outside toilet. In cities and towns the pan-type dunny was emptied by the dunny man , who came round regularly with his dunny cart. Dunny can now be used for any toilet.
First recorded in the s but dunnekin is attested in Australian sources from the s. To subject a person to a torrent of words; to talk at great length to; to harangue. While not a physical beating of the ears, most people can sympathise with a person who has sustained a long taking to an ear-bashing by a boring or obnoxious windbag an earbasher. The verb is first recorded from the s, and possibly comes from Australian military slang of the Second World War period. Most Australians are surprised to discover that this is an Australian term.
First recorded from the s. The ALP contains many influential spokesmen who advocate disengagement of governments from existing agricultural assistance measures.. The act or process of picking up litter; a group of people doing this; the act or process of searching an area of ground for something. This term developed out of an earlier verbal form recorded in the s , emu-bob , meaning 'to pick up pieces of timber, roots, etc. By the s the verb had developed a more specific sense: 'to pick up litter'.
By the s the verbal form had developed into the noun. A portable insulated container in which food and drink are kept cool. A common sight at barbecues, beaches, parks, and camping grounds in the summer months. The Esky Auto Box keeps drinks and food cold and fresh wherever you go. Will fit in the boot of any car.
Winton Dirt Music : They have a folding table and esky out here on the sand beside the fire. A prison for the confinement of female convicts. Also known as a female factory. The first such factory was established in at Parramatta in New South Wales. It was a place of punishment, a labour and marriage agency for the colony, and a profit-making textiles factory where women made convict clothing and blankets. There were eight other factories in the Australian convict settlements. Australia often sees itself as an egalitarian society, the land of the fair go , where all citizens have a right to fair treatment.
It is often used as an exclamation: fair go Kev, give the kids a turn! Sometimes it expresses disbelief: fair go—the tooth fairy? For further discussion of this term see the article 'Australia - the land of the fair go' on our blog. Both men turned pale, but struggled, calling out, 'Read the warrants to us first'. Inspector Ahern said, 'You can hear them later', and the police seized the prisoners.
Both appealed to Mr. Ranking, crying out, 'Do you call this a fair go, Mr. Her baby brother sat on the floor eating the bits that fell off the table. Steady on, be reasonable. In Australian opposition leader Kevin Rudd famously used a variant of the phrase: 'fair shake of the sauce bottle'. Fair suck of the sauce bottle is first recorded in the s. For a further discussion of the origin of the phrase see the article 'Folk Etymology in Australian English' in our Ozwords newsletter.
As elsewhere, in Australia feral describes a domesticated animal that has gone wild. But in Australia the adjective has another meaning ' especially of a person wild, uncontrolled; unconventional; outside the conventional bounds of society; dirty, scruffy. Feral is also used as a noun to mean 'a person living outside the conventional bounds of society; a wild or uncontrolled person.
The Australian senses of the adjective and noun are first recorded in the s. The women clashed with media crews and politicians in a series of well-documented incidents They were quite happy with the 'feral' tag. They have invaded people's homes and maliciously destroyed victims' property. A firefighter. Firie follows a common pattern in Australian informal English whereby a word is abbreviated in this case firefighter or fireman and the -ie or -y suffix is added.
Other examples include barbie a barbecue , Chrissy Christmas , and rellie a relative. Firie is recorded from the s. Ostentatious, showy and a bit too flashily dressed. This phrase is usually used of a man, and implies that although he may be well-dressed and well-groomed, there is also something a bit dodgy about him. In spite of a superficial smartness, he is not to be trusted.
In spite of the gold tooth, he is still a rat. Eddie is as flash as a rat with a gold tooth. McNab Dodger : What brought him unstuck were his brazen schemes and lavish lifestyle. He was as flash as a rat with a gold tooth. Extremely busy, at top speed. The literal sense is to lie fully stretched out like a lizard , and the figurative sense means as fast as possible.
The phrase also alludes to the rapid tongue-movement of a drinking lizard. To search or rummage for something. Cornish miners probably brought the term to Australia in the s and used it to describe their search for gold. Australia inherited a number of mining terms from the Cornish, but they remain very specialised, and fossick is the only one to move out into the wider speech community.
Heidke Claudia's Big Break : 'Okay, we get the picture', said Sophie as she fossicked around in her enormous bag in search of boarding passes. Like Fremantle, many towns have given it a local name. Albany, Geraldton, Esperance, Eucla and Perth all have their doctor. Fremantle doctor is recorded from the s. At Perth, with the Fremantle Doctor up his arse, he was seriously quick.
A rumour or false report; an absurd story. Furphy comes from the name of a firm, J. The term probably originated at the Broadmeadows army camp in Melbourne as a transfer from the name of the carts to the typical gossip of soldiers at sites serviced by these carts during the period of the First World War. Furphy is first recorded in Some of the troops do not suffer from lack of imagination.
In early records it is variously spelt as galar , gillar , gulah , etc. The bird referred to is the grey-backed, pink-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus , occurring in all parts of Australia except the extreme north-east and south-west. It is also known as the red-breasted cockatoo and rose-breasted cockatoo.
Some early settlers used the galah as food. In the Truth newspaper reports: 'The sunburnt residents of at that God-forsaken outpost of civilisation were subsisting on stewed galah and curried crow'. Some writers report that galah pie was a popular outback dish. The galah, which usually appears in a large flock, has a raucous call, and it was perhaps this trait which produced the term galah session for a period allocated for private conversation, especially between women on isolated stations, over an outback radio network.
Flynn in Northern Gateway writes: 'The women's radio hour, held regularly night and morning and referred to everywhere as the 'Galah Session'. It is a special time set aside for lonely station women to chat on whatever subject they like'. More generally, a galah session is 'a long chat' - A. Garve, Boomerang : 'For hours the three men chatted It was Dawes who said at last, "I reckon this galah session's gone on long enough".
Very commonly in Australian English galah is used to refer to a fool or idiot. This figurative sense is recorded from the s, and derives from the perceived stupidity of the bird. The following quotations give an indication of how the term is used:. Porteous Cattleman : 'The bloke on the other end of the line is only some useless galah tryin' to sell a new brand of dip'. O'Grady Aussie Etiket : 'You would be the greatest bloody galah this side of the rabbit-proof fence'. From this sense arise a number of colloquial idioms.
To be mad as a gumtree full of galahs is to be completely crazy. To make a proper galah of oneself is to make a complete fool of oneself. A pack of galahs is a group of contemptibly idiotic people. An abberviation of good day , a familiar greeting, used frequently and at any hour. While the word is recorded from the s, it came to international prominence in the s through a series of tourism advertisements where Australian actor and comedian Paul Hogan invited people from around the world to visit Australia and say g'day.
Harms Memoirs of a Mug Punter : I made it to the table where the prime minister was wielding his pen. He looked up. He didn't recognise me. In International English geek means 'a person who is socially inept or boringly conventional or studious'. The sense comes from the United States, where it originally referred to an assistant at a sideshow whose purpose was to appear an object of disgust or derision. The American word appears to be a variant of geck , a Scottish word from Dutch meaning 'a gesture of derision; an expression of scorn or contempt'.
In more recent times the word has been increasingly applied to a person who is obsessed with computers and computer technology. In Australia, however, there is another meaning of the word geek. It means 'a look', and usually appears in the phrase to have or take a geek at. It is also used as a verb. This Australian sense derives from British dialect Scottish and Northern England keek meaning 'to look, to peep'. The Australian form geek appears as a verb in Cornish meaning 'to peep, peer, spy', and this is likely to be the same word as the northern keek.
The lateness of the word in Australian English, however, suggests a borrowing from the northern dialects rather than from Cornish. Both Australian senses of the noun and verb are recorded from the early 20th century. What about having a geek at that? The cafe has gained a steady stream of regulars for coffee, breakfast, lunch or a geek at the bikes. Gilgai is a word which describes a terrain of low relief on a plain of heavy clay soil, characterised by the presence of hollows, rims, and mounds, as formed by alternating periods of expansion during wet weather and contraction with deep cracking during hot, dry weather.
This type of terrain is described as gilgaed. A single hole is known as a gilgai , or gilgai hole. Such holes are also known as crabholes , dead-men's graves , or melon holes. The word comes from Wiradjuri an Aboriginal language once spoken over a vast area from southern New South Wales to northern Victoria and Gamilaraay an Aboriginal language spoken over a vast area of east-central New South Wales and extending into southern Queensland gilgaay 'waterhole'.
Gilgai if recorded from the s. Abbott Notes of a Journey on the Darling : At the blackfellows' tanks the clay excavated is still seen beside the waterholes, while in the gilgies there is no appearance of any embankment, the ground all round being perfectly level. Kent What do you do with them on Sundays? A box in which a woman accumulates items in preparation for marriage; the collection itself. In other countries it is called a hope chest or bottom drawer. The term is first recorded in They were focused entirely on the fantasy of the day and it almost didn't matter who the groom was.
Extremely drunk; replete with food; extremely full, packed. In Australian English a goog is an egg. The phrase is a variation of an earlier British phrase in the same sense: full as a tick , recorded from the late 17th century. Full as a goog is recorded from the s. Cask wine. The form goon may also have been influenced by an altered pronunciation of flagon. Australia There is evidence for this term from the early s. For more about wine terms in Australian English see the article 'Wine in Australian English' on our blog.
Birmingham Tasmanian Babes Fiasco : None of the wine he reviewed ever cost more than ten bucks a bottle. In fact very few even came within cooee of that, mostly tapering off at five or six bucks per four litre 'goon'. A prohibition on demolition or construction projects on sites deemed to be of historical, cultural or environmental significance, especially one imposed by a trade union. The term arose by analogy with black ban a prohibition, especially as imposed by a trade union, that prevents work from proceeding , with the colour green being associated with the environmental lobby. Although green ban is used elsewhere, the term was recorded first in Australia in Thomas Taming the Concrete Jungle : A unionist coined a happy phrase for such bans to save natural bush and park.
A retired person who travels extensively within Australia, especially by campervan, caravan or motor home. The grey nomad is a product of the baby boomer generation. The term is recorded from the s. For a further discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from September Guernsey is the second largest of the Channel Islands.
The name is used attributively to designate things found in or associated with Guernsey. Thus the term Guernsey cow for an animal of a breed of usually brown and white dairy cattle that originated in Guernsey. In the early nineteenth century the term Guernsey shirt arose for 'a close-fitting woollen sweater, especially one worn by sailors'.
During the gold rushes in Australia in the mid nineteenth century, in a specialisation of this sense, the term guernsey was used to describe a kind of shirt worn by goldminers:. In a further specialisation in Australian English, the term guernsey has been used since the s to refer to a football jumper, especially as worn by a player of Australian Rules football:. From the football meaning there arose in the early 20th century the phrase to get a guernsey or be given a guernsey , meaning to win selection for a sporting team. In a widening of this sense, the phrase came to mean 'to win selection, recognition, approbation', and is commonly used in non-sporting contexts:.
Extremely happy. The origin of this phrase is unknown, but is perhaps an arbitrary partial rhyming reduplication with 'happy'. The phrase is used elsewhere but recorded earliest in New Zealand and Australia. The earliest non-Australasian evidence is Irish. The Dictionary of New Zealand English suggests a Scottish origin from the Clydesdale area larrie meaning 'joking, jesting, gibing'.
The phrase is first recorded in Australian evidence from the s. Thorne Bonzer : I put my disappointment away in a drawer, and pulling on my happy-as-Larry face, toddled down towards them. A cheerful person; a satisfied person. The phrase comes from a s advertising jingle for the yeast-based spread Vegemite. For a further discussion of Vegemite and to view the advertisement see the article 'A History of Vegemite' on our blog. Fordham Dream Keeper : We have to remember what Mummy told us, happy thoughts make for happy little Vegemites.
An importunate request especially of a monetary or sexual nature. This term is often found in the phrase to put the hard word on : to make demands especially monetary or sexual on someone. The term is from British dialect where it had various meanings including 'abuse, scandal, marriage proposal, refusal'. The Australian usage is recorded from the early 20th century. To escape; to make a rapid departure. To do a Harold Holt is rhyming slang for bolt. The phrase is from the name of former Australian prime minister Harold Holt who disappeared, presumed drowned, while swiming at Portsea, Victoria, in As with other rhyming slang terms the rhyming element is often omitted, hence we sometimes see the forms to do a Harold and to do a Harry.
The phrase is recorded from the s. For a further discussion of this term see the article 'Harold Holt does a Harry' on our blog. The hills hoist is a rotary clothes line fitted with a hoist that is operated by a crown and pinion winding mechanism. In Australia Lance Hill is commonly thought to have invented the rotary clothes hoist, but he adapted the existing design in by including his own winding mechanism. The name hills hoist is used generically in Australia for any rotary clothes line.
As a symbol, the hills hoist has both positive and negative connotations in Australian culture. As a negative symbol it stands for the dreary sameness and ordinariness of Australian suburbia. I would have been up to my wrists in grey water with peas and mutton fat floating in it. I would have been staring through chipped venetian blinds at rusted Hills hoists and broken plastic toys. An imaginary nerve that reacts whenever demands are made on one's money especially in contexts such as government proposals to increase taxes. The term is from hip-pocket 'a trouser pocket that traditionally contains a wallet'.
Hip-pocket nerve is recorded from the s. This is showing up, for example, in falling real wages that inevitably will grate the hip-pocket nerve of voters. A lout or an exhibitionist, especially a young male who drives dangerously or at reckless speed. Suggestions for its origin include: an alteration of Australian English hooer 'a prostitute, a general term of abuse'; an alteration of Australian English poon 'a simpleton or fool'; a contraction of hooligan; and the Scottish word hune 'a loiterer, a drone, a lazy, silly person'.
The current sense referring to a reckless driver only emerged in the s. For further discussion of this term see the article 'A Hoon by any other Name' in our Ozwords newsletter, and for a discussion of the term hoon operation see our Word of the Month article from July Particularly when you're standing out on the road, hoons drive past with bare bums hanging out of the window fairly frequently.
Dooley Big Twitch : It was into this habitat, at about Hughie is the rain god, and the appeal send it down Hughie is a request for a heavy fall of rain - the phrase is first recorded in Since the s surfers have also implored the god's name in a request for good waves.
For a further discussion about this term and its possible origins see the article 'Send Her Down Who-ie? A confection of flavoured and frozen water. Almost a necessity on hot summer days in Australia. An iceblock. You call them iceblocks', I reply. A small-time confidence trickster. The word is probably formed from illy with the same meaning which is likely an alteration of the Australian word spieler meaning 'a person who engages in sharp practice; a swindler, originally a card sharper'.
To whack the illy to act as a confidence trickster and illywhacker are first recorded in Kylie Tennant's The Battlers :. An illy-wacker is someone who is putting a confidence trick over, selling imitation diamond pins, new-style patent razors or infallible 'tonics' A man who 'wacks the illy' can be almost anything, but two of these particular illy-wackers were equipped with a dart game.
Illywhacker was becoming obsolescent in Australian English, but it was given new life when Peter Carey used it as the title of his novel. In that novel, we find the following passage:. For further discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from June Extremely lazy. When vaccinations became routine in the mids, the fear of polio diminished.
Hardy Outcasts of Foolgarah : Even the most primitive societies protect, succor and shelter the aged, but not so the affluent society with the principle of he that cannot work neither shall he eat except Silver Tails who wouldn't work in an iron lung. Now, we are illiterate, ill-mannered, wouldn't work in an iron lung, among the worst-dressed in the world, and overall, not very happy people. What happened, I wonder? The word jackeroo was originally a Queensland term recorded from referring to a white man who lived beyond the bounds of close settlement.
Later, a jackeroo was 'a young man frequently English and of independent means seeking to gain experience by working in a supernumerary capacity on a sheep or cattle station'. A jackeroo is now 'a person working on such a station with a view to acquiring the practical experience and management skills desirable in a station owner or manager'. The word can also be used as a verb, meaning 'to work as a jackeroo'.
The term jilleroo is sometimes used for a female jackeroo. Meston in Geographic History of Queensland proposed an Aboriginal origin for the term:. Another word used throughout Australia is jackeroo, the term for a 'newchum', or recent arrival, who is acquiring his first colonial experience on a sheep or cattle station. It gas a good-natured, somewhat sarcastic meaning, free from all offensive significance. It is generally used for young fellows during their first year or two of station life. The origin of the word is now given for the first time.
It dates back to , the year the German missionaries arrived on the Brisbane River, and was the name bestowed upon them by the aboriginals. The Brisbane blacks spoke a dialect called 'Churrabool', in which the word ' jackeroo ' or ' tchaceroo ' was the name of the pied crow shrike, Stripera graculina, one of the noisiest and most garrulous birds in Australia. The blacks said the white men the missionaries were always talking, a gabbling race, and so they called them 'jackeroo', equivalent to our word 'gabblers'. The etymology proposed by Meston appears to be without foundation.
There is no confirmatory evidence of a bird name tchaceroo in the Brisbane language, or of anything like this being applied to missionaries. Is it possible that the term has an English origin? The personal name Jack is often used in contexts of manual work e. This perhaps fits the later meanings of jackeroo , but unfortunately it does not explain the original Queensland meaning. A black fellow.. The jury is still out on this term. Is it possible that it is a Queensland Aboriginal term not for 'crow shrike' but for 'stranger'?
Hercock Desert Droving : A word of recall here about jackeroos. They were the privileged class of learner, who ate at the homestead with the manager, not with us ringers. A navy or black sleeveless singlet cut nearly to the waist under the arms to give freedom of movement. The Jacky Howe is worn especially by shearers and other rural workers. His world record stood until when it was broken by a shearer using a machine. Jacky Howe is first recorded in Thornton Jackaroo : In his Jackie Howe, his biceps bulge, the size of footballs.
Jumbuck is an Australian word for a 'sheep'. It is best known from Banjo Paterson's use of it in Waltzing Matilda. The origin of the word is not known. It may possibly be from an Aboriginal language, or it may be an Aboriginal alteration of an English phrase such as jump up. Some suggested etymologies are very fanciful indeed. In a writer in the Bulletin suggested:. The word 'jumbuck' for sheep appears originally as jimba, jombock, dambock, and dumbog.
In each case it meant the white mist preceding a shower, to which a flock of sheep bore a strong resemblance. It seemed the only thing the aboriginal imagination could compare it to. Whatever the case, jumbuck was a prominent word in the pidgin used by early settlers and Aborigines to communicate with one another, and was thence borrowed into many Australian Aboriginal languages as the name for the introduced animal, the sheep. For a further discussion of jumbuck , including its possible origin in Malay, see a previous 'Mailbag' article in our newsletter Ozwords.
Barton Bastards I have Known : My favourite was a little grey mare that She sensed the first day I was on her that I was a novice with the jumbucks. Any of the larger marsupials of the chiefly Australian family Macropodidae, with short forelimbs, a tail developed for support and balance, long feet and powerful hind limbs, enabling a swift, bounding motion.
Perhaps the most well-known Australian English word, kangaroo comes from the Guugu Yimithirr Aboriginal language of far north Queensland.
For a more detailed discussion of kangaroo , and the many words deriving from it, see our article 'Kangaroo: the international and regional word' on the Oxford Dictionaries blog, and the article 'Kangaroo: A First Australian' in our newsletter Ozwords. A sudden, damaging blow; a knock-out punch; an unfair punch. This term is recorded from the late 19th century. In more recent years the term has been mentioned in relation to 'one-punch' assaults in Australian cities.
These assaults are usually carried out by intoxicated young men in the vicinity of nightclub and hotel venues. This type of assault often takes the form of a single unprovoked and unexpected hit to the victim's head, sometimes resulting in serious head injuries or death. In this context there have been calls to replace the term king-hit with 'coward punch'. King-hit is also used as a verb. He would give him the 'King hit' - on the point - which would knock him out. The word koori is now well established in Australian English, but it continues to cause confusion and misunderstanding.
Many Aborigines dislike the terms 'Aborigine' and 'Aboriginal' since these terms have been foisted on them, and they carry a lot of negative cultural baggage. Not surprisingly, they have looked for alternative words, and instead of 'Aborigine' many prefer to use the word for a 'person' from a local language. In order to understand the history of the word koori we need to bear in mind the fact that when the Europeans arrived here there were about languages spoken in Australia.
Way back in the past, they were no doubt related, but most of them were as different from one another as English is different from Italian or Hindi. Some languages of south-east Australia parts of New South Wales and Victoria had a word - coorie , kory , kuri , kooli , koole - which meant 'person' or 'people'. In the s, in the form koori , it came to be used by Aborigines of these areas to mean 'Aboriginal people' or 'Aboriginal person'.
It was a means of identification. But because of the wide variety of Aboriginal languages and cultures, koori has not gained Australia-wide acceptance, being confined to most of New South Wales and to Victoria. For a while Tasmanian Aborigines called themselves koories , and then Tasmanian koories to distinguish themselves from the mainland koories. Recently, we have gathered evidence for the term muttonbird koories , a reference to the importance of muttonbirding to their traditional way of life, especially on the islands off the Tasmanian coast.
More recently, the tribal or language term Palawa is increasingly being used. Most people associate the term kylie with the female personal name as in Kylie Minogue. In Western Australia, however, it is a term for what is known elsewhere as a 'boomerang'. The word came into Australian English from Noongar, an Aboriginal language spoken over a large extent of south-western Western Australia, including present-day Perth, Albany, and Esperance.
The word also occurs in other western and central Australian languages. The word first appears in English in G. I am sorry that nasty word 'boomerang' has been suffered to supercede the proper name. Boomerang is a corruption used at Sydney by the white people, but not the native word, which is tur-ra-ma; but 'kiley' is the name here.
While early writers use various spellings as with Moore's kiley , in the twentieth century the spelling kylie is standard. The female personal name Kylie may be based on this word. Flashily dressed; showy; socially unacceptable. The term is a transferred use of British slang lairy or leery meaning 'knowing, conceited'. Shop made suit, tight fit and cheap. Flower in slouched hat, well over eyes. The precise spelling of lairy was not immediately apparent, and for many years the variants leary and leery were common.
These appear now to have faded away. Despite the uncertainty of its spelling, lairy nonetheless quickly became a standard term in Australian English, and, from the early twentieth century, writers felt able to use it without the need for quotation marks. In for example C. Chandler wrote in Darkest Adelaide : Sitting on the seat with him was a nice specimen of the Australian larrikin. Not so leery, perhaps, as his prototypes of Melbourne and Sydney, but a choice specimen of his class nevertheless.
The popularity of the adjective lairy quickly spawned a noun and a verb to match. The noun lair , meaning 'one who displays vulgarity, esp. Sayers, Jumping Double : A hit behind the ear from one of those back street lairs. The verb lair is most frequently used as a verb phrase in combination with up to mean 'behave in the manner of a lair', and has produced another adjectival use as in G. Savage, The House Tibet : At Legal Aid I got landed with this callous bitch all laired up with these big shoulder pads and earrings like baby crocodiles.
By the s the verb had produced a new extended form, lairise , with an identical meaning. In for example the Northern Territory News commented: All they seem to think of these days is lairizing around in ten-gallon hats, flash, colored shirts, gabardine riding breeches and polished riding boots chasing a bit of fluff. A square of sponge cake coated in chocolate icing and desiccated coconut.
The origin of this term has been hotly debated. The cake is popularly associated with the name of Charles Wallace Baillie, Baron Lamington , Governor of Queensland , and although the dates of the earliest recipes line up with the governership, the attribution does not appear until the s. For a further discussion about the possible origins of this term see the article 'Lords and Lamingtons' on our blog.
And you look at it and say to yourself, 'God, I could murder a lamington'. A person who acts with apparently careless disregard for social or political conventions; a person who is unsophisticated but likeable and good-hearted, 'a rough diamond'; a joker. This well-known Australian term is recorded from the s, but originally the term was quite pejorative.
From the s into the early 20th century a larrikin was 'a young urban rough, especially a member of a street gang; a hooligan'. For a more detailed discussion about larrikins in Australian history see the article 'The Leary Larrikin' in our newsletter Ozwords. Ferguson Left, Right and Centre : They appealed to the irreverence of the Australian spirit, the larrikin in us all.
A system of payment whereby a purchaser puts a deposit on an article which is then reserved by the retailer until the full price is paid. The retailer lays the article by until payment is complete. The lay-by system first appeared in the early 20th century. Lay-by is also used as a verb. It is said that the storerooms of most of the drapery establishments in Sydney are filled to their utmost capacity with things being bought on the 'lay by' system. Fraser first used the phrase in his Alfred Deakin Lecture. The phrase is now used as a stock response to complaints or whinges of any kind - 'I have to take the kids to soccer training every night this week'.
Forget that masochistic 'no pain, no gain; life wasn't meant to be easy' rot. The phrase is used allusively to refer to the ideals of the Australian Labor Party. In Prime Minister Ben Chifley spoke of the Labor goal of social justice as 'the light on the hill, which we aim to reach by working for the betterment of mankind'. Since then the light on the hill has become a catchphrase in Australian politics, used to evoke traditional Labor values.
Menzies Afternoon Light : The Socialist objective, his 'light on the hill', must not be blotted out or obscured in this way. Trapped in its myths, it invests itself with a historic mission of leading 'working people' to the 'light on the hill': a light whose glare now serves mainly to hide corrupt deals and tarnished ideals. In Australia a battler is a person who struggles for a livelihood, and who displays great determination in so doing.
This sense is first recorded in in a Henry Lawson story. Such a person is now often described as a little Aussie battler , a phrase first recorded in the s. Very angry; crazy; eccentric. The phrase also takes the form mad as a snake. There are similar phrases in Australian English including mad as a meat axe and mad as a gumtree full of galahs. Mad as a cut snake is first recorded in The cherry flavours and crisp acidity of corvina are joined by fig and chocolatey notes when the grapes are partially dried for the production of Amarone.
Here, on the shoreline of Lake Ontario, temperatures are moderated by proximity to the lake, as well as the waterways that run through the region. Creek Shores vineyards have good sun exposure, and the soils are well drained. Notable grape varieties include cabernet franc, riesling and chardonnay. Demerara rum dem-ur-AIR-ah The full-bodied and flavourful Demerara rum is produced in Guyana, using both pot and column stills. It is a deep amber colour, and has aromas and flavours of molasses and burnt sugar. Prior to , this was the highest category, held by only the regions of Rioja and Priorat.
From on, a new category was created for very special vineyard sites. These are the Vinos de Pago Estate Wines. DOCG is the highest category of Italian wine. As with DOC, there are controls on region, grape variety, yield and vinification. Additionally, DOCG wines must pass a tasting panel. As with DOC, there are controls on region, grape variety, yield, and vinification. The diastase is naturally present in abundance in the barley seed, thus making barley a preferred grain for brewing beer. The material is mined and processed for use as a filtering medium. In , some Austrian wines were found to contain high levels of DEG, prompting a crisis for the Austrian wine industry.
The idea that alcohol aids in digestion may have some anecdotal support, however this does not get much support from health professionals. Black cherry aromas and flavours are typical, and dolcetto usually has moderate to low tannins. An impression of fruit sweetness is followed by a hint of bitter cherry on the finish. The sweetness of the finished wine is dependent on the amount of sugar in the dosage.
The doubler resembles a pot still. These arid and rocky lands are planted with the robust, heat-loving grape varieties that make up the blend for Port wines and increasingly, a range of rich and flavourful un-fortified wines.
Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms
Austria has its Strohwein straw wine , a sweet wine made from grapes that are dried on mats of straw or reeds. France's Jura region makes Vin de Paille French for straw wine in a similar way. A clear, colourless spirit made from fruits such as pears, cherries or plums. The grapes must be frozen solid on the vine and are pressed while frozen. Rare, expensive and lusciously sweet. These areas are rich in marine life and plants.
The heat accelerates aging and contributes to the character of the wine, mimicking long sea passages in the tropics. European Union The economic and political union of 27 European member states. A common currency and common policies on trade and agriculture have had a profound effect on the wine industry in Europe. Top F falanghina fah-lan-GEE-nah An Italian white grape variety with good quality and character, grown in small quantities in Campania.
Falanghina may have been the basis of Falernian, one of the most prestigious wines of the Roman period. Fining agents, such as gelatin or egg white, are added to the cask. These substances attract to themselves any minute particles that may have been floating in the wine, causing the particles to clump together and settle.
Fino FEE-no The driest and most delicate Sherry style, notable for its maturation in barrel under a protective layer of yeast known as flor. The flor protects the wine from oxidation, preserving its pale colour and delicate, fresh aromas and flavours. This variety was almost wiped out during the phylloxera outbreak, and folle blanche is now rarely planted, having been replaced with the reliable ugni blanc.
Most warm climate wine regions produce some form of fortified wine. It is essentially a flat plain, just inland from Niagara-on-the-Lake, with excellent sun exposure and cool evenings that provide good conditions for full-bodied red wines. Frascati DOC Proximity to Rome has historically ensured a strong market for Frascati's light, fresh, neutral white wines.
Trebbiano and malvasia are the main varieties of the region. This area experiences significant rainfall from autumn through to the spring; however July and August are much drier. Proximity to the Pacific coast ensures a cool, moderate climate, favouring varieties such as pinot noir and chardonnay. The most widely planted white variety of Italy's Friuli wine region, producing wines that have aromas of wildflowers and herbs. In its home country of Hungary, furmint is a component of the celebrated botrytis affected sweet wine Tokaji.
Implicated as the main culprit in hangover. The layer of stones reflects and absorbs heat during the day, and radiates that heat to the vines as the sun sets. The stones also limit evaporation of water from the soil during dry summer months. Gamay shows great promise in Ontario, where it is well suited to the climate, and delivers good quality even when yields are fairly high.
Garganega is vigorous, and this can lead to over-cropping and wines that are neutral and uninteresting. The best producers keep yields low, which enhances delicate citrus and almond flavours. The fragrance of these resinous plants perfumes the air, and some believe that the wines of the region may also reflect this influence.
Made from a combination of grain alcohol, malt wine and botanical flavourings. Genever must contain juniper, but in this spirit the juniper aroma may be subtler than in London Dry Gin. Geographical Indications GI Australia's denomination of origin system uses the term Geographical Indications GI for their officially recognized wine regions. The hallmark aromas of lychee, grapefruit and flower blossoms accompany a palate that can be weighty, with low to medium acidity.
A key variety in France's Alsace region, and notable for its success here in Ontario. Known for very good value. Formerly the grape variety was called prosecco also, however when Prosecco was promoted to a DOCG classification, glera was adopted as the official name for the grape variety. It has no colour or aroma, but has a mildly sweet taste.
In sweet botrytis affected wines, high glycerol levels may contribute to the wine's mouthfeel. Also known as bush vines, the vine can take on the shape of a goblet. This is similar to other pomace brandies, such as French marc and Portuguese bagaceira. In Italy, grappa is served primarily as a digestif. Graves AOC grahv Graves is located on Bordeaux's left bank, south of the Garonne river; this region produces both red and white wines of good quality. In Campania, near the town of Tufo, the DOCG Greco di Tufo recognizes the quality of the this variety, which achieves its best expression on volcanic soils.
Yields high alcohol, but prone to oxidation and lacking in colour. Although plantings of grillo have been declining as the market for Marsala diminishes, varietal and blended wines featuring this interesting variety show promise. The wines are light to medium-bodied, with characteristic aromas of celery and white pepper. A mild maritime climate and a long tradition of fruit-growing make this region a new and promising source for Canadian wines.
The climate is dry in summer, and scarcity of fresh water for irrigation can be a challenge. From the vine trunk, fruiting canes are trained in opposite directions along wires. This mechanized system, which processes hundreds of bottles at a time, is an efficient replacement for labour intensive hand riddling. This is known as the heads of the distillation. The heart of the distillation is a temperature range where ethanol potable alcohol is in highest concentration. When the alcohol percentage starts to decrease, the distillation is entering a phase called the tails, and this too is separated.
This is equivalent to 2. Overlooking the town of Tain L'Hermitage, the vineyards cover a steep granite hillside which faces the afternoon sun. Hermitage wines are considered to be one of the best expressions of syrah, and the powerful wines are earthy and tannic, with the potential to age for decades. These taverns show that they are open and ready for business by displaying fresh pine boughs above the front door. Highland malt whisky The Highland region is the largest of the Scotch whisky producing regions.
It is geographically diverse, and can be divided into sub-regions; Central, Southern and Eastern. Highland malts are known for their light body and dry finish. Hops also acts as a natural preservative, inhibiting micro-organisms that could spoil the beer. These cold waters are the source of cool ocean breezes that moderate the climate in the wine regions in Chile.
The European Union uses the term interspecific cross. Top I Icewine A sweet wine made from botrytis affected grapes; this is the highest level of ripeness and concentration of wine in Alsace, France. Icewine Icewine is a sweet wine made from grapes that have been left to freeze naturally on the vine.
Pressed while still frozen, the grapes yield a viscous, concentrated must. High sugars create a difficult environment for the yeast; fermentation stops early, resulting in a low alcohol level and high residual sugar. This category allows the use of international varieties, and gives producers the freedom to experiment and produce wines that reflect the quality potential of Italy's wide range of terroir. The ingredients would be steeped in a liquid, in the same way that tea is brewed.
Alcohol is particularly effective at extracting the essential oils of botanical flavouring ingredients. International Organization for Standardization ISO The International Organization for Standardization is a network of national standards organizations, and is responsible for the development of technical standards for business, government and society. Produces wines that are fresh and lively, with aromas and flavours of citrus, almonds and herbs. Yields must be kept low for the best quality. Islands malt whisky The Islands is one of the sub-regions of the Highlands Scotch whisky region.
The Island whiskies are peatier than Highland malts, though not with the same intensity of their island counterpart Islay. Islay malt whisky EYE-luh The Island of Islay is home to roughly eight distilleries, producing intensely aromatic malts that are considered to be the strongest and most pungent of all.
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Local peat is used to fuel kilns, imparting a smoky character to the malt as it is dried. The city gives its name to the DOP for sherry wines. Joven HO-ven Spanish wine label term; bottled in the year of vintage. Kir Royale is a variation made with a sparkling base wine. Kosher wines conform to Jewish religious and dietary law. For a wine to be certified as kosher the people involved in production and handling must themselves be observant Jews.
Kosher wines are identified on the label with a special symbol. Top L labrusca lah-BROOS-ka Labrusca is a native North American vine species, and the source of cultivars and hybrids that were the foundation of the Ontario wine industry prior to the s. Hybrids with labrusca parentage are not allowed the VQA classification. Grapes reach full maturity during a long, moderate growing season. The tart, sour flavours of lambic are often enhanced with the addition of fruits; for example, kriek beer is made with cherries. Either dry or off-dry, with pronounced acidity, these wines are a perfect match for the rich local cuisine, and are made from lambrusco, a highly productive grape variety.
It is more a style of wine than anything else and, as such, it is mild and slightly sweet. A completely dry Liebfraumilch is not allowed. Significant in viticulture, as limestone soils are a feature of many famous wine-growing regions. It runs along the shore of Lake Ontario, with its southern boundary at the foot of the Niagara Escarpment. Proximity to the lake means a long, moderated growing season, which favours some of the grape varieties that are more sensitive to cold damage.
Loess soils hold water well and are fertile, and are associated with some of the worlds most productive agricultural lands. Lowland malt whisky The lowland region lies south of a line that runs from Greenoch on Scotland's west coast to Dundee in the east. Lowland whiskies are generally made with un-peated malt, which enhances the lightly sweet and fruity character of the spirit. Macabeo, also known as viura, grows well in warm, dry climates and produces neutral, lightly aromatic wines with good acidity. One of the world's most long-lived wines, with a unique method of maturation that is the key to Madeira's style.
The wines are matured in heated warehouses in conditions that mirror the effect of long sea passages in the holds of ships. The heat accelerates the oxidative aging of the wines. Some of Chile's best cabernet sauvignon from Chile's most established wine region. The wines are soft, deeply coloured and brimming with dark, plummy fruit.
Leading variety also in the French region of Cahors, which is on a resurgence now. In Spain, the white wines of Rioja benefit from malvasia's round texture. The richest style of Madeira is made from malvasia, but is known as Malmsey. Named after mammole, the Italian word for violets, the variety is still used in Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, however it has a decreasing share of the Tuscan vineyard. It is produced by the fermentation and distillation of the pomace remaining after winemaking. Generally pomace brandies are not aged, but French marc is aged in oak, and sometimes vintage dated.
These attributes are well suited to Ontario, New York State and British Columbia, where this variety has a good following. The gamy and tart notes associated with hybrid varieties are diminished in fruit from older vines. Elegant and perfumed wines, considered to be among Bordeaux's best. Marlborough GI The Marlborough region has been key to New Zealand's rise to prominence for benchmark quality sauvignon blanc. With promising results, chardonnay and pinot noir will follow suit. Marsala has great historical significance, as it was very popular in England following its introduction there in the latter part of the 18th century.
Traditionally served as an aperitif or dessert wine, it is today more commonly associated with the kitchen. It is also found in small amounts in California and Australia. The best examples are full-bodied and weighty, with aromas of almonds, melon and wildflowers. Maule DO M?
W-leh The Andes mountains form a backdrop for Chile's expansive central valley. The Maule region is the largest and longest established of Chile's wine regions. Mediterranean climate Long term weather patterns characterized by dry, hot, sunny summers and wet, mild winters. The climate is moderated by the Gironde estuary, and the nearby Atlantic Ocean.
Melon produces wines that are light, crisp and neutral - the perfect match for fresh seafood. Malbec is the leading grape variety. In Bordeaux, it provides softness that balances the tough, astringent tannins of cabernet sauvignon. Tolerant of cooler, damper conditions, it is a good fit for coastal California, Washington State, British Columbia and Ontario.
This term is currently out of use, as it was banned in by the European Union. See also Traditional Method. Midi mee-DEE The unofficial name for the wine regions in the south of France Languedoc, Roussillon and Provence ; the name refers to "midday" when the sun is at its highest point. Mixto is made with a proportion of raw material usually sugar cane other than agave.
This grape variety has high acidity, and a small proportion brings an important crispness and liveliness to the blend. Makes a robust wine with deep colour and abundant, fine tannins. Frequently very good value, and in the blend called Rosso Conero DOC, can achieve outstanding quality.
The montepulciano grape variety produces wines that are deeply coloured, with moderate acidity and soft tannins. The grape variety sangiovese thrives in the coastal climate, creating wines that are more generous than wines originating further inland. As this wine matures, it can take on earthy and meaty notes typical of Burgundy wines from the pinot noir variety.
Lightly sweet, aromatic and low in alcohol. Known for rieslings that are racy, refreshing and elegant. Soils rich in manganese create a full-bodied style of Beaujolais which is sometimes aged in oak. It needs a lot of heat to ripen, and is also grown in Spain, where it is known as monastrell.
Often a blending partner for grenache and syrah. Mull malt whisky Mull is one of Scotland's Western Islands, and its one active distillery makes two distinctly different single malts. Tobermory is delicate, dry and lightly peated, and Ledaig is more full-bodied, with a very aromatic, peaty character. At one time Germany's most planted white variety, used to produce large quantities of medium sweet, inexpensive, fruity wines. Decreasing in importance now as German growers concentrate their efforts on riesling and pinot noir.
Now grown widely in Europe and the rest of the wine world, but always bringing the heady aromas of ripe grapes, honey and flowers. A host of styles, from bone dry in Alsace to lusciously sweet dessert wines around the Mediterranean. Noted for structured and ageworthy cabernet sauvignon, velvety merlot and sumptuous chardonnay. High in both tannins and acidity, this grape variety produces wines that require substantial bottle aging before they are truly ready to drink.
Characteristics include a pale garnet colour, and aromatic complexity. On its own it produces wines that are deeply coloured with firm, grippy tannins and earthy flavours. The variety is challenging to work with, with low yields and the tendency to ripen late. It yields wines of deep colour, with abundant tannins and high alcohol.
It has the capacity to age well, and can accommodate the spice of new oak. Also used as a descriptor of a wine style that emphasizes technology over tradition and places a greater focus on grape variety than place of origin. Regional appellations combine several smaller appellations with similar character. This region includes the Short Hills Bench, Twenty Mile Bench and the Beamsville Bench; a series of north facing slopes which are tucked beneath the ridge of the escarpment.
This area hugs the lake Ontario shoreline between the Welland Canal and the Niagara River, and it is this proximity to the Lake that is the main influence. The growing season is long, and this area is known for full bodied wines. An extended growing season results from the combined moderating effect of Lake Ontario and the Niagara Escarpment.
The fast flowing river creates strong air currents that draw cooler air down into the deep river gorge, resulting in a moderating effect and an extended growing season. Main factors defining this region are the proximity to Lake Ontario and the Niagara River, and the flat topography that offers good sun exposure. Oenology has always placed an emphasis on wine-making; although nowadays a modern perspective encompasses viticulture as well, acknowledging that wine quality depends more than anything else on quality fruit.
That was over years ago — today, this description is as valid as ever, with wine production taking place over the entire country. The climate is dry, with plenty of sunshine, and Okanagan Lake provides a moderating effect. Old World Europe, Mediterranean basin and North Africa: the wine making regions with ancient traditions and a long history of wine growing. The main island is home to two active distilleries, Highland Park and Scapa.
These whiskies are distinct, with Highland Park showing a rich and powerful presence, and Scapa a more restrained, medium-bodied character. The historically popular abboccato lightly sweet version is now rare.
Faulted wines that are oxidized appear darker in colour and taste cooked, nutty or bitter. Wines such as Oloroso Sherry, Tawny Port and Madeira are intentionally oxidized, and have a deep colour and nutty, tangy flavour. Home of the large and influential cooperative KWV, and a growing number of small to mid-sized estates. Usually copper coloured, well hopped and bitter; styles include American pale ale, India pale ale, and English bitter.
Palomino is high-yielding, neutral and low in sugar and acidity. These attributes make this variety ideal for the production of Sherry. This kills bacteria and other organisms.
The Highland Six Pack's Sydney: Book One of the Highland Six Pack Series
Three out of five of the famous first growths lie within its borders Lafite, Latour, Mouton-Rothschild. The smoke from burning peat gives Scotch whisky its characteristic smoky aroma and flavour. Noted for Cava, the bottle-fermented sparkling wines made from local grape varieties. On this scale, 0 is most acidic, 7 is neutral distilled water and 14 is alkaline. Lighter wines made from the red grape barbera, and off-dry sparklers made from the aromatic moscato grape are also produced here. Pierce's disease A bacterial disease of the vine that is native to North America and has no cure; spread by leafhopper insects, the vines die in one to five years.
Prized for sparkling wine production because of high acidity and neutrality. Wines are made in a wide range of styles, from the simple and lightly fruity wines of northern Italy, to weighty, spicy and full-bodied examples from Alsace. Ontario and British Columbia are also producing some excellent pinot gris. A reliable ripener, its dependable productivity is popular with growers. It is challenging for both growers and winemakers, but the pursuit of quality with this variety has become a goal the world over.
Lower yields and careful winemaking have tamed some of its more pungent characteristics, and the best examples show an affinity for oak and the capacity for aging. Merlot is the predominant variety, producing wines that are opulent and refined. This type of still is used in Cognac and Scotch whisky production. Bone dry and with a characteristic minerally, smoky aroma. Powdery mildew A fungal disease also known as Oidium that is native to North America and covers vines in a white, web-like coating. This wine is made from grapes that have achieved a very high level of ripeness, and have also dried naturally on the vine.
The county lies on the north shore of Lake Ontario — an irregular peninsula that is virtually surrounded by water. A foundation of limestone soils bodes well for the quality of signature pinot noir and chardonnay, however a challenging climate requires intensive vineyard work to protect vines from winter damage. If the mixture refused to burn the spirit was deemed under proof.
The Prosecco DOC is shared between the regions of Veneto and Friuli regions of northeast Italy; however most of the production takes place in the towns of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene in the Veneto region. The modern trend is toward a drier wine that is a better match for food. Famous for the Grand Cru vineyard Montrachet; in , the village added Montrachet to it's name, creating Puligny-Montrachet.
Top R racking The process of transfering clear wine into another vessel after fermentation or aging, leaving the sediment behind; this technique is also used for aerating reds wines during maturation. Rauchbier ROWHK-beer German beer style where the malt is kilned over beechwood fires, imparting a distinctive smoky aroma and flavour.
The wines range from light and easy-drinking to a more powerful style noted for structure and the forward expression of red currant and raspberry fruit. As the tequila ages, it takes on more colour and the vanilla, spicy and caramel notes of oak. Residual sugar RS is measured in grams of sugar per litre of wine, and along with acidity, alcohol and other factors this will determine how sweet a wine will taste.
Famous estates such as Schloss Johannisberg are concentrated on the steep north bank of the Rhine River. Tempranillo is the primary grape variety, and here it produces wines that are complex and full in body. Its longevity and ability to express terroir are unmatched, but riesling is still trying to repair a reputation unfairly linked with low quality, overly sweet German wines. Riesling has a characteristic minerality, crisp acidity, and can be made in a range of styles. Tempranillo is the primary grape variety, which is blended with garnacha and others to create a balanced, elegant wine.
The second fermentation is started by adding an amount of the lees of Amarone production, or a proportion of partially dried grapes. More challenging in the vineyard than marsanne, it has lost favour over the years despite its edge in overall quality. It produces red, white, rose and fortified sweet wines; 90 percent of all Vin Doux Naturel wine in France is produced here. Grown extensively in the Czech Republic.